9378954 Encyclopedia How Things Are Made Volume Five

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Aluminum The metallic element aluminum is the third most plentiful element in the earth's crust, comprising 8% of the planet's soil and rocks (oxygen and silicon make up 47% and 28%, respectively). In nature, aluminum is found only in chemical compounds with other elements such as sulphur, silicon, and oxygen. Ambulance An ambulance is a self-propelled vehicle specifically designed to transport critically sick or injured people to a medical facility. Most ambulances are motor vehicles, although
  Aluminum  The metallic element aluminum is the third most plentiful element in the earth's crust,comprising 8% of the planet's soil and rocks (oxygen and silicon make up 47% and 28%,respectively). In nature, aluminum is found only in chemical compounds with other elementssuch as sulphur, silicon, and oxygen. Ambulance  An ambulance is a self-propelled vehicle specifically designed to transport critically sick orinjured people to a medical facility. Most ambulances are motor vehicles, although helicopters,airplanes, and boats are also used. Artificial Blood  Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true bloodserves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transportingoxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Bed Sheet  A bed sheet is a flat-woven textile that is used on a bed between the occupant of a bed and thewarm blanket above. It is generally a rectangle of broadloomed fabric, meaning it is madewithout a center seam. Bioceramics  Over the last several decades, bioceramics have helped improve the quality of life for millions of people. These specially designed materials—polycrystalline aluminum oxide, hydroxyapatite (amineral of calcium phosphate that is also the major component of vertebrate bone), partiallystabilized zirconium oxide, bioactive glass or glass-ceramics, and polyethylene-hydroxyapatitecomposites—have been successfully used for the repair, reconstruction, and replacement of diseased or damaged parts of the body, especially bone. Bisque Porcelain Figurine  Bisque porcelain is unglazed, white ceramic ware that is hard-fired, non-poreous, andtranslucent. Today's bisque porcelain industry has arisen out of hundreds of years of experimentation with clay products and untold sources of artistic inspiration. Brassiere   Derived from the french word meaning upper arm, the brassiere is a mass-produced supportundergarment worn by women that consists of two fabric cups attached to two side panels, aback panel, and shoulder straps (unless strapless) that fits snugly. They are sized according to auniversal grading system first introduced by Ida Rosenthal, the founder of Maidenform, in 1928. Ceramic Filter  During many industrial processes, a filtering step may be required to remove impurities andimprove quality of the final product. Depending on the process, the filter may be subjected tohigh temperatures and a corrosive environment. Child Safety Seat  In the United States, more than 2,000 children under 14 years of age die each year in vehiclecrashes. Not only are vehicle crashes the leading killers of children, in 1997 they also injurednearly 320,000 youngsters. Computer Mouse  Designers in the computer industry seek not only to build the better mousetrap but to build thebest mouse. The computer mouse is an accessory to the personal computer that has become anessential part of operation of the computer. Concrete Dam  Concrete dams are built in four basic shapes. The concrete gravity dam has weight as its strength. Cork  An incredibly versatile natural material, cork is harvested from living cork oak trees somewhatlike wool is gathered from sheep. The trees are unharmed by the process, and they continueproducing cork for an average of 150 years. Cough Drop  A cough drop is medicinal tablet designed to deliver active ingredients which suppress or relievethe cough reflex. They are made just like hard candies; ingredients are mixed together, they arecooked, cooled, and packaged. Cranberries  The cranberry is a slender, trailing native North American shrub (Vaccinium macro-carpon) thatgrows in moist, sandy soil. The fruit berry is small, red, quite tart, and high in vitamin C.  Crane  A crane is a machine that is capable of raising and lowering heavy objects and moving themhorizontally. Cranes are distinguished from hoists, which can lift objects but that cannot movethem sideways. Cubic Zirconia  A gem or gemstone can be defined as a jewel or semiprecious stone cut and polished for personaladornment. Gemstones produced in the United States and other producing countries are of threetypes; natural, synthetic, and simulant. Doorknob  There are 114 million existing doorways in the United States, with about two million new onesadded every year. Doors equipped with suitable hardware are used to close off these openingsand protect the interior of the building from the environment. Doughnut  The doughnut is a fried ring or globule of sweet dough that is either yeast leavened or chemicallyleavened. The dough is mixed and shaped, dropped into hot oil and fried, and glazed. Electric Automobile  Unlike the gas-powered automobile, the electric automobile did not easily develop into a viablemeans of transportation. In the early twentieth century, the electric car was vigorously pursuedby researchers; however the easily mass-produced gasoline-powered automobile squelchedinterest in the project. Eyeglass Frame  American humorist Dorothy Parker (1893-1967) once wrote caustically that Men seldom makepasses at girls who wear glasses. Her comment tells as much about the eyeglass fashionsavailable in her youth as about the customs of flirtation. Ms. Fill Dam  Dams are among the oldest structures built by humans for collective use. A dam is a barrier thatis constructed across a river or stream so the water can be held back or impounded to supplywater for drinking or irrigation, to control flooding, and to generate power.  Fishing Fly  A fishing fly is a hook that has been dressed with pieces of feathers, fur, thread, and othermaterials to resemble a literal fly or some other small insect or fish. Fishing flies are tied in over5,000 patterns and sizes, and each has a specific name. Fishing Lure  The way to a fish's stomach is through his eyeballs, and fishing lures are objects that resembleany of the naturally occurring foods that fish might find attractive. The purpose of the lure is touse movement, color, and vibration to grab the fish's attention and cause him to bite the hook. Fishing Rod  A fishing rod is a device used in sport fishing that consists of a long pole with a line held in placealongside it with the use of guides. Usually the line is kept in storage on a reel that the anglerspins to both take up and let out the line while casting. Flute  A flute is a musical instrument that produces sound when a stream of air is directed against theedge of a hole, causing the air within the body of the instrument to vibrate. Most flutes aretubular, but some are globular or other shapes. Foam Rubber  Foam rubber is found in a wide range of applications, from cushioning in automobile seats andfurniture to insulation in walls and appliances to soles and heels in footwear. Foams are made byforming gas bubbles in a plastic mixture, with the use of a blowing agent. Frisbee  Nearly 300 million frisbees have been sold since their introduction 40 years ago, for bothorganized sports and recreational play. According to Mattel, 90% of Americans have played withthis flying toy at one time or another, translating to 15 million people enjoying the sport everyyear. Galoshes  The name for galoshes srcinated in the Middle Ages when many styles of boots from short tolong were popular. The word came from Gaulish shoes or gallicae, which had leather uppers andsoles carved of wood; when the Romans conquered the territory they called Gaul (France), theyborrowed the Gaulish boot style.
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