APWH, Chapter Fourteen, Definitions

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1 6th Period January 27, 2008 Chapter Fourteen Vocabulary Muhammad: Came into world of nomadic Bedouin herders and merchants. Born about 570 C.E. into reputable family of merchants in Mecca. He lost both of his parents by the time he was six years old. His grandfather and uncle cared for him, providing him with an education. Muhammad’s early life was difficult. As a young man, he worked for a wealthy widow, Khadija, whom he married about the year 595. He gained a position of some prominence thr
   6 th PeriodJanuary 27, 2008 ChapterChapterChapterChapter FourteenFourteenFourteenFourteen VocabularyVocabularyVocabularyVocabulary 1Muhammad:Muhammad:Muhammad:Muhammad:Came into world of nomadic Bedouin herders and merchants. Born about 570C.E. into reputable family of merchants in Mecca. He lost both of his parentsby the time he was six years old.His grandfather and uncle cared for him, providing him with an education.Muhammad’s early life was difficult. As a young man, he worked for a wealthywidow, Khadija, whom he married about the year 595. He gained a position of some prominence through this marriage.Muhammad established himself as a merchant at age 30, making a comfortablelife for himself in Arabian society. Muhammad had a basic understanding of both Christianity and Judaism, although not deeply knowledgeable aboutthem.As he approached age 40, he underwent a profound spiritual experience thattransformed his life. His experience left him with the convictions that therewas only one true deity, Allah, who ruled the universe and would soon bring judgment on the world, rewarding the righteous and punishing the wicked.Muhammad experienced visions through the archangel Gabriel, instructing himto explain his faith to others. Muhammad began to expound his faith to family and close friends in accordance with the instructions he was given.As others became interested in his message, an expanding minority of Mecca’scitizenry joined his circle. Muhammad’s followers prepared written texts of his oral recitations.During the 650s, devout Muslims compiled these written versions and issuedthem as the Quran (“recitation”), the holy book of Islam. The Qurancommunicates Muhammad’s understanding of Allah and his relation to theworld, and serves as the definitive authority for Islamic religious doctrine andsocial organization.Mecca’s ruling elite took it as a personal affront and threat to their positionwhen Muhammad denounced green as a moral wickedness that Allah wouldpunish. Polytheistic Arabs thought it dangerous and offensive thatMuhammad insisted that Allah was the only true god.Muhammad’s attack on idolatry also represented an economic threat to thosewho one and profited from shrines to deities at Mecca. When the rulingelites of Mecca began to persecute the prophet and his followers,Muhammad fled to Yahthrib. Muslims called their new home Medina, “thecity of the prophet.” His move to Medina serves as the starting point of theofficial Islamic calendar.   6 th PeriodJanuary 27, 2008 ChapterChapterChapterChapter FourteenFourteenFourteenFourteen VocabularyVocabularyVocabularyVocabulary 2In Medina, Muhammad found himself at the head of a small society in exile thatneeded guidance in both practical and spiritual affairs. He organized his followers into a cohesive community called the umma  , providing it with acomprehensive legal and social code.Muhammad led this community in daily prayers to Allah and in battle withenemies at Medina, Mecca, and other places. Muhammad also looked afterthe economic welfare of the umma  , organizing commercial ventures. He alsoprovided relief for widows, orphans, and the poor.Muhammad began to refer to himself as the final prophet through whom Allahwould reveal his message to humankind. He accepted the authority of earlier Jewish and Christian prophets, accepting that Allah was the samedeity as Yahweh and God.In 629 C.E., Muhammad and his followers arranged with the authorities toparticipate in the annual pilgrimage to the Ka’ba. In 630, they attackedMecca and conquered the city, forcing the elites to adopt Muhammad’s faith. Muhammad and his followers destroyed the pagan shrines, and madethe Ka’ba a symbol of Allah’s greatness.Only the faithful were allowed to approach the shrine, and Muhammad led the first Islamic pilgrimage to the Ka’ba.Abu Bakr:Abu Bakr:Abu Bakr:Abu Bakr:Served as the first caliph  , leading the umma  as substitutes for Muhammad. Hewas one of Muhammad’s closest friends and most devoted disciples.Became head of state of the Islamic community as well as chief judge, religiousleader, and military commander.Ali:Ali:Ali:Ali:Supported by the Shia sect, cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, candidate forcaliph when prophet died.Served briefly as the fourth caliph, enemies assassinated him, killed many of hisrelatives, and established their own candidate as caliph.The Shi furiously resisted the victorious faction, struggling to return thecaliphate to the line of Ali.Ibn RushdIbn RushdIbn RushdIbn Rushd:::: Qadi  of Seville in the cliphate of Cordoba, followed Aristotle in seeking toarticulate a purely rational understanding of the world.   6 th PeriodJanuary 27, 2008 ChapterChapterChapterChapter FourteenFourteenFourteenFourteen VocabularyVocabularyVocabularyVocabulary 3Work helped to shape Islamic philosophy, found its way to schools in westernEurope, where Christian scholars knew him as Averroes.During the thirteenth century, his work influenced the development of scholasticism – the effort of medieval European philosophers to harmonizeChristianity with Aristotelian thought.MuslimMuslimMuslimMuslim::::An individual who accepts the Islamic faith, meaning “one who has submitted”Muslims drew inspiration from Arabian society. Additionally, they adoptedPersian techniques of government and finance to administer their lands.Persian literature, science, and religious values also had a place in Islamicsociety.In later centuries, drew inspiration from Greek and Indian traditions as well.IslamIslamIslamIslam::::“submission,” signifies obedience to the rule and will of Allah, the only deityrecognized in the Islamic faith.Arose in the Arabian peninsula, new religion faithfully reflected social andcultural conditions of its homeland.Quran is the holy book, Muhammad the prophet, monotheisticMMMMeccaeccaeccaecca::::Birthplace of Muhammad, site of the Ka’ba.QuranQuranQuranQuran::::“recitation,” the holy book of Islam, compiled by Muhammad’s followers, writtenversions of Muhammad’s teachings.A collection of poetry that communicates Muhammad’s understanding of Allahand his relation to the world.Serves as the definitive authority for Islamic religious doctrine and socialorganization.MMMMedinaedinaedinaedina::::“the city of the prophet,” place where Muhammad and followers fled to in 622C.E., trading city 345 km north of Medina.Move to Medina serves as starting point of official Islamic calendar.   6 th PeriodJanuary 27, 2008 ChapterChapterChapterChapter FourteenFourteenFourteenFourteen VocabularyVocabularyVocabularyVocabulary 4HijraHijraHijraHijra::::“migration”UmmaUmmaUmmaUmma::::“community of the faithful”Ka’baKa’baKa’baKa’ba::::Large black rock, formerly considered to be the dwelling place of a powerfuldeity. After Muhammad and followers returned to Mecca, they preserved itas a symbol of Allah’s greatness5 Pillars of Islam5 Pillars of Islam5 Pillars of Islam5 Pillars of Islam::::(1)Muslims must acknowledge Allah as the only god and Muhammad as hisprophet.(2)They must pray to Allah while facing Mecca.(3)They must observe a fast during the daylight hours of the month of Ramadan.(4)They must contribute alms for the relief of the weak and poor.(5)Those who are physically and financially able must undertake the hajj andmake at least one pilgrimage to Mecca in honor of Muhammad’s visits.Constitutes a simple but powerful framework that has bound the umma  as awhole into a cohesive community of faith.ShariaShariaShariaSharia::::Islamic holy law, emerged during the centuries after Muhammad had offeredguidance on proper behavior in almost every aspect of life.Elaborated by jurists and legal scholars, drew inspiration from the Quran andthe early historical accounts of Muhammad’s early life and teachings.Offered precise guidance on matters as diverse as marriage and family life,inheritance, slavery, business and commercial relationships, politicalauthority, and crime.Made Islam develop into way of life complete with social and ethical values fromIslamic religious principles.CaliphCaliphCaliphCaliph::::“deputy,” serve not as prophets, but as lieutenants or substitutes forMuhammad.
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