Indian English Liturature

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Indian English literature 1 Indian English literature Indian English literature (IEL) refers to the body of work by writers in India who write in the English language and whose native or co-native language could be one of the numerous languages of India. It is also associated with the works of members of the Indian diaspora, such as V.S. Naipaul, Kiran Desai, Jhumpa Lahiri and Salman Rushdie, who are of Indian descent. It is frequently referred to as Indo-Anglian literature. (Indo-Anglian is a
  Indian English literature1 Indian English literature Indian English literature (IEL) refers to the body of work by writers in India who write in the English languageand whose native or co-native language could be one of the numerous languages of India. It is also associated withthe works of members of the Indian diaspora, such as V.S. Naipaul, Kiran Desai, Jhumpa Lahiri and SalmanRushdie, who are of Indian descent.It is frequently referred to as Indo-Anglian literature. (  Indo-Anglian is a specific term in the sole context of writingthat should not be confused with the term  Anglo-Indian ). As a category, this production comes under the broaderrealm of postcolonial literature- the production from previously colonised countries such as India. History IEL has a relatively recent history, it is only one and a half centuries old. The first book written by an Indian inEnglish was by Sake Dean Mahomet, titled Travels of Dean Mahomet  ; Mahomet's travel narrative was published in1793 in England. In its early stages it was influenced by the Western art form of the novel. Early Indian writers usedEnglish unadulterated by Indian words to convey an experience which was essentially Indian. Raja Rao's  Kanthapura is Indian in terms of its storytelling qualities. Rabindranath Tagore wrote in Bengali and English andwas responsible for the translations of his own work into English. Dhan Gopal Mukerji was the first Indian author towin a literary award in the United States. Nirad C. Chaudhuri, a writer of non-fiction, is best known for his The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian where he relates his life experiences and influences. P. Lal, a poet, translator,publisher and essayist, founded a press in the 1950s for Indian English writing, Writers Workshop.R.K. Narayan is a writer who contributed over many decades and who continued to write till his death recently. Hewas discovered by Graham Greene in the sense that the latter helped him find a publisher in England. GrahamGreene and Narayan remained close friends till the end. Similar to Thomas Hardy's Wessex, Narayan created thefictitious town of Malgudi where he set his novels. Some criticise Narayan for the parochial, detached and closedworld that he created in the face of the changing conditions in India at the times in which the stories are set. Others,such as Graham Greene, however, feel that through Malgudi they could vividly understand the Indian experience.Narayan's evocation of small town life and its experiences through the eyes of the endearing child protagonistSwaminathan in Swami and Friends is a good sample of his writing style. Simultaneous with Narayan's pastoralidylls, a very different writer, Mulk Raj Anand, was similarly gaining recognition for his writing set in rural India;but his stories were harsher, and engaged, sometimes brutally, with divisions of caste, class and religion. Later history Among the later writers, the most notable is Salman Rushdie, born in India, now living in the United Kingdom.Rushdie with his famous work   Midnight's Children (Booker Prize 1981, Booker of Bookers 1992, and Best of theBookers 2008) ushered in a new trend of writing. He used a hybrid language  –  English generously peppered withIndian terms  –  to convey a theme that could be seen as representing the vast canvas of India. He is usuallycategorised under the magic realism mode of writing most famously associated with Gabriel García Márquez.  Indian English literature2 Salman Rushdie Vikram Seth, author of   A Suitable Boy (1994) is a writer who uses apurer English and more realistic themes. Being a self-confessed fan of Jane Austen, his attention is on the story, its details and its twists andturns.Vikram Seth is notable both as an accomplished novelist andpoet. Vikram Seth's outstanding achievement as a versatile and prolificpoet remains largely and unfairly neglected.Shashi Tharoor, in his The Great Indian Novel (1989), follows astory-telling (though in a satirical) mode as in the Mahabharatadrawing his ideas by going back and forth in time. His work as UNofficial living outside India has given him a vantage point that helpsconstruct an objective Indianness.Other authors include Richard Crasta, Manoj Das, Vikram Chandra,Anita Desai, Kiran Desai, Arundhati Roy, Gita Mehta, Chitra BanerjeeDivakaruni, Upamanyu Chatterjee, Samit Basu, Raj Kamal Jha,Jhumpa Lahiri, Bharti Kirchner, Khushwant Singh, Vijay Singh, TarunTejpal, Amit Chaudhuri, Amitav Ghosh, Vikas Swarup, Anil Menon,Rohinton Mistry, Suketu Mehta, Kiran Nagarkar, Bharati Mukherjee, Preeti Shenoy, Vandana Singh, Chetan Bhagat,Abhay Kumar and Lakshmi Raj Sharma. Khushwant Singh Debates One of the key issues raised in this context is the superiority/inferiorityof IWE (Indian Writing in English) as opposed to the literaryproduction in the various languages of India. Key polar conceptsbandied in this context are superficial/authentic, imitative/creative,shallow/deep, critical/uncritical, elitist/parochial and so on.The views of Rushdie and Amit Chaudhuri expressed through theirbooks The Vintage Book of Indian Writing and The Picador Book of  Modern Indian Literature respectively essentialise this battle.Rushdie's statement in his book   –  the ironic proposition that India'sbest writing since independence may have been done in the languageof the departed imperialists is simply too much for some folks to bear  –  created a lot of resentment among manywriters, including writers in English. In his book, Amit Chaudhuri questions  –  Can it be true that Indian writing,that endlessly rich, complex and problematic entity, is to be represented by a handful of writers who write in English,who live in England or America and whom one might have met at a party? Chaudhuri feels that after Rushdie, IWE started employing magical realism, bagginess, non-linear narrative and hybrid language to sustain themes seen as microcosmsof India and supposedly reflecting Indianconditions. He contrasts this with the works of earlier writers such as Narayan where the use of English is pure, but the decipheringof meaning needs cultural familiarity. He also feels that Indianness is a theme constructed only in IWE and does notarticulate itself in the vernacular literatures. He further adds the post-colonial novel, becomes a trope for an idealhybridity by which the West celebrates not so much Indianness, whatever that infinitely complex thing is, but itsown historical quest, its reinterpretation of itself .Some of these arguments form an integral part of what is called postcolonial theory. The very categorisation of IWE  –  as IWE or under post-colonial literature  –  is seen by some as limiting. Amitav Ghosh made his views on this veryclear by refusing to accept the Eurasian Commonwealth Writers Prize for his book  The Glass Palace in 2001 and  Indian English literature3withdrawing it from the subsequent stage.The renowned writer V. S. Naipaul, a third generation Indian from Trinidad and Tobago and a Nobel prize laureate,is a person who belongs to the world and usually not classified under IWE. Naipaul evokes ideas of homeland,rootlessness and his own personal feelings towards India in many of his books.Jhumpa Lahiri, a Pulitzer prize winner from the U.S., is a writer uncomfortable under the label of IWE.Recent writers in India such as Arundhati Roy and David Davidar show a direction towards contextuality androotedness in their works. Arundhati Roy, a trained architect and the 1997 Booker prize winner for her The God of Small Things , calls herself a home grown writer. Her award winning book is set in the immensely physicallandscape of Kerala. Davidar sets his The House of Blue Mangoes in Southern Tamil Nadu. In both the books,geography and politics are integral to the narrative. In his novel Lament of Mohini [1] (2000), Shreekumar Varma[2] touches upon the unique matriarchal system and the sammandham system of marriage as he writes about theNamboodiris and the aristocrats of Kerala. Poetry A much over-looked category of Indian writing in English is poetry. As stated above, Rabindranath Tagore wrote inBengali and English and was responsible for the translations of his own work into English. Other early notable poetsin English include Derozio, Michael Madhusudan Dutt, Toru Dutt, Romesh Chunder Dutt, Sri Aurobindo, SarojiniNaidu, and her brother Harindranath Chattopadhyay.A generation of exiles also sprang from the Indian diaspora. Among these are names like Agha Shahid Ali, SujataBhatt, Richard Crasta, Yuyutsu Sharma and Vikram Seth.In modern times, Indian poetry in English was typified by two very different poets. Dom Moraes, winner of theHawthornden Prize at the age of 19 for his first book of poems  A Beginning went on to occupy a pre-eminentposition among Indian poets writing in English. Nissim Ezekiel, who came from India's tiny Bene Israel Jewishcommunity, created a voice and place for Indian poets writing in English and championed their work.Their contemporaries in English poetry in India were Jayanta Mahapatra, Gieve Patel, A. K. Ramanujan, ArunKolatkar, Dilip Chitre, Eunice De Souza, Kersi Katrak, P. Lal and Kamala Das among several others. Youngergeneration of poets writing in English include Rukmini Bhaya Nair, Smita Agarwal, Makarand Paranjape,Vattacharja Chandan, Arundhathi Subramaniam, Ranjit Hoskote, Sudeep Sen, Jerry Pinto among others. Alternative Writing India's experimental and avant garde counterculture is symbolized in the Prakalpana Movement. During the last fourdecades this bilingual literary movement has included Richard Kostelanetz, John M. Bennett, Don Webb, SheilaMurphy and many others worldwide and their Indian couterparts. Vattacharja Chandan is a central figure whocontrived the movement. [3] Prakalpana fiction is a fusion of prose, poetry, play, essay, and pictures. An example of aPrakalpana work is Chandan's bilingual Cosmosphere 1 [4] (2011).Some bilingual writers have also made significant contributions, such as Paigham Afaqui with his novel  Makaan in1989.  Indian English literature4 References ãHaq, Kaiser (ed.). Contemporary Indian Poetry . Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1990.ãHoskote, Ranjit (ed.).  Reasons for Belonging: Fourteen Contemporary Indian Poets. Viking/Penguin BooksIndia, New Delhi, 2002.ãKing, Bruce Alvin.  Modern Indian Poetry in English: Revised Edition . New Delhi: Oxford University Press,1987, rev. 2001. ( the standard work on the subject and unlikely to be surpassed  — Mehrotra, 2003).ãKing, Bruce Alvin. Three Indian Poets: Nissim Ezekiel, A K Ramanujan, Dom Moraes . Madras: OxfordUniversity Press, 1991.ãMehrotra, Arvind Krishna (ed.). The Oxford India Anthology of Twelve Modern Indian Poets . Calcutta: OxfordUniversity Press, 1992.ãMehrotra, Arvind Krishna (ed.).  A History of Indian Literature in English . New York: Columbia University Press,2003.Distributed in India by Doaba Books Shanti Mohan House 16,Ansari Road, New DelhiãParthasarathy, R. (ed.). Ten Twentieth-Century Indian Poets (New Poetry in India) . New Delhi: Oxford UniversityPress, 1976.ãSouza, Eunice de. Nine Indian Women Poets , Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1997.ãSouza, Eunice de. Talking Poems: Conversations With Poets . New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999.ãHaq, Rubana (ed.). The Golden Treasure of Writers Workshop Poetry . Writers Workshop , Calcutta., 2008 .ãSouza, Eunice de.  Early Indian Poetry in English: An Anthology : 1829-1947. New Delhi: Oxford UniversityPress, 2005.ãSrikanth, Rajini. The World Next Door: South Asian American Literature and the Idea of America '. AsianAmerican History and Culture. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 2004. Foonotes [1]http://www.   lamentofmohini.   homestead.   com[2]http://www.   shreevarma.   com[3] Songs of Kobisena by Steve Leblanc in Version 90 , PMS Cafe Press, Alston, MS, USA.[4]http://smashwords.   com/b/46742
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